Basic phrases

jayes
nee or neenno (nee is mainly used by itself, and neen when as part of a sentence)
 
alsjeblieftplease (familiar)
alstublieftplease (polite)
 
dank jethanks (familiar)
dank uthank you (polite)
hartelijk dankthank you very much
 
graag gedaanyou're welcome

Saying hello and goodbye

hallohi, hello
 
goededaghello (literally: good day; can be used any time from morning until around 5pm)
goedemorgengood morning (used until around noon)
goedemiddaggood afternoon (used from noon until 6pm)
goedenamiddaggood afternoon (less common, used from noon until around 4pm)
goedeavondgood evening (used after 6pm)
 
welkom!welcome!
 
tot ziens!see you later!
doeibye (informal, typically Dutch)
daagbye (infomal, typically Flemish)
goedenachtgoodnight
een prettige dag!have a nice day!

Apologising and getting someone's attention

excuseer me or excuseer mijexcuse me (to get attention or to get past someone)
sorrysorry
 
geen probleemno problem

Making yourself understood

spreek je Engels?do you speak English? (familiar)
spreekt u Engels?do you speak English? (polite)
spreek je Nederlands?do you speak Dutch? (familiar)
spreekt u Nederlands?do you speak Dutch? (polite)
 
ik spreek geen NederlandsI don't speak Dutch
ik spreek niet goed NederlandsI don't speak much Dutch
ik spreek een beetje NederlandsI speak a little Dutch
ik spreek een heel klein beetje NederlandsI only speak very little Dutch
 
alsjeblieft, spreek langzamerplease speak more slowly (familiar)
alstublieft, spreek langzamerplease speak more slowly (polite)
 
kan u dat alstublieft herhalen?could you please repeat that? (polite)
 
ik versta het nietI don't understand

Other basic phrases

ik weet het nietI don't know
 
waar zijn de toiletten, alsjeblieft?where are the toilets, please? (familiar)
waar zijn de toiletten, alstublieft?where are the toilets, please? (polite)